Prays citri

Control of the citrus flower moth with pheromones and traps

Common name: Citrus flower moth
Scientific name: Prays citri
Order: Lepidoptera
Affects: Citrus
Main season: Spring, summer

Prays citri

General information

Prays citri is currently considered the most harmful pest to the lemon tree because it destroys the floral organs of the trees. In addition, it can damage buds and small fruits.

brote floral y limoneros

Since damage occurs during the flowering period, the plants that are prone to attacks are those that have a gradual flowering period such as the lemon tree. Within this species, the Verna variety is the most attacked because it has several consecutive blooming periods a year. Damage has also been seen in oranges and occasionally in the Clemenules Mandarin which also has a long flowering period.


Morphology and biology

The adult is 10 mm wide and a grey colour, its wings have dark spots and frayed edges. The larvae are a whitish or greenish colour with a brown head.

The adults fly at night and twilight, laying eggs preferably on the petals of the flowers that are still closed. They also lay their eggs in the sepals, shoots or small fruits. They normally pupate inside the flower in which they have already fed, then joined with silk threads. They usually hibernate as a chrysalis and can produce between 3 and 5 generations a year.

Adult of Prays citri

Adult of Prays citri

Egg of Prays citri on flower

Egg of Prays citri on flower

Caterpillar of Prays citri

Caterpillar of Prays citri

Pupa of Prays citri

Pupa of Prays citri

The eggs can be seen individually on the rose-pink petals as a whitish speck. If the amount of eggs that are laid over the floral buds is high, the damage will be severe during the flowering period. The caterpillar, born from this egg, bores into the chorion and enters directly inside the flower, between the egg and the petal.

Source: F. García Marí, J. Costa Comelles and F. Ferragut. // Photos: E. Llácer in http//gipcitricos.ivia.es


Damages

The most serious damage is produced in the Verna variety of lemon trees during the two main blooming periods: in spring, from April to May, it is known as Cosecha and in summer, in September, it is called Rodrejo. The “Sanjuanera” blooming period that takes place in June is not as abundant and also, causes slight damage.

In the case of attacks on flowers, the larva feeds on the anthers and pistils inside of the flower. It then moves on to other flowers and binds the damaged area with silk threads, forming a mass on the inside in which dried petals and lots of dark-coloured excrement can be found. This type of damage could be confused with that of the Cacoecia caterpillar, with the difference being that this last pest has a preference for newly ripened fruit and not flowers. Besides, Cacoecia does not produce sawdust and excrement.

Damages caused by Prays citri in a floral shoot

Damages caused by Prays citri in a floral shoot

The larva feeds on the epidermis of the leaves. It excavates a gallery along the shoot with resin secretions. Attacks on newly ripened fruit tend to create a gallery in the style and Cacoecia caterpillar end up by eating all the fruit.

Damages to growing fruits appear as superficial spots, which are caused by the larva feeding on the peel. In the centre of these spots, the chorion of the egg can be found.

Damages to growing fruits appear as superficial spots, which are caused by the larva feeding on the peel. In the centre of these spots, the chorion of the egg can be found. Sometimes, the larva can cause damage to the scions in all types of citrus fruits, by entering under the grafted scutum and feeding on the cambium. Therefore, the scion dries up. Once the damage is caused, the larva abandons the fruit to pupate in the ground, although it can also pupate near the damaged bud. Some pylarid moths such as Ephestia  sp. or Cryptoblabes can cause similar damage to the scion.


Detection and monitoring

1 to 2 traps per hectare should be placed at the same height as the crops. Also, a specific support can be used.

Traps should be placed at the exact moment when the blossoming starts and the first floral buds appear.


Mass trapping

The males of this species are specifically captured in order to reduce mating, meaning that the unfertilised females will lay unviable eggs. In this way, the pest population is reduced.

For mass trapping, the amount of traps per surface area must be increased, depending on the location and uniformity of the plots. One trap controls a surface area between 500 and 1.000 m2. This means a density of 10 to 20 traps per hectare. On the borders of the plots, it will be necessary to place a barrier of traps separated 10 to 15 metres from each other.


Period of use

To achieve good control of Prays citri,it is advisable to combine the two methods: detection and monitoring and mass trapping. In spring you can place 1 or 2 traps per hectare to detect the pest and observe its population levels.

With tolerance thresholds established in each area, the moment to adopt control measures, in this case mass trapping, can later be defined.

The tolerance threshold for Prays citri is very low and varies depending on the area. In general, it is between 7 and 21 captures per trap and per week. For mass trapping, traps should be placed throughout the plots.

In addition, traps are also recommended to be placed between July and August in order to protect this blooming period.


Necessary material

A trap ECONEX POLILLERO, ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets, ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS or ECONEX DISPOSABLE TRIANGULAR and a pheromone diffuser ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 60 DAYS, product authorised for use in organic farming, that lasts for 60 days under normal field conditions.

The traps: ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets and ECONEX FOLDABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets are activated by placing an ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR 1 UNIT on the base. The sheet is coated with a pressure-sensitive adhesive, solvent free, in which the insects are trapped.

logo inter eco

Pheromone diffuser ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 90 DAYS

ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 60 DAYS pheromone diffuser and packaging of the product
(Code: VA446)


3,25 € (excl. VAT)

>Pheromone diffuser ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 60 DAYS ENV. 10 UD.

ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 60 DAYS 10 UNITS pheromone diffuser and packaging of the product.
(Code: VA447)


3,15 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets

ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets
(Code: TA118)


4,20 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS

ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS
(Code: TA273)


3,57 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR 1 UNIT PACK

ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR 1 UNIT PACK
(Code: TA248)


0,84 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX POLILLERO

ECONEX POLILLERO
(Code: TA001)


5,98 € (excl. VAT)

ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR

ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR
(Code: TA242)


1,84 € (excl. VAT)


Recommendations about the different types of traps suggested

As shown in the graph, the most effective traps are the ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets and the ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR. However, these adhesive traps may require periodic monitoring, approximately twice a month. It is neccesary because once the adhesive surface is completely saturated with insects, the trap stops working. In this case, the trap or the sticky sheet must be changed it. And if the 60 days of duration has not exceeded, you can continue using the same pheromone diffuser. In order to reduce the maintenance work, it can be used the ECONEX POLILLERO. This trap is less effective than the other ones but it can incessantly extend the captures during the whole lifetime of the diffusers.


Factors that influence the number of traps needed

The pest population, the bordering crops, the level of control required, etc...

One important factor is the size of the crop. In small and irregular crops, a greater number of traps are required than in larger and more uniform plots.

Another important factor is the distance between plots that have the same pest. In cases like this, the borders of the plots must be reinforced, so it could be necessary to place up to 20 traps per hectare or even more for mass trapping.


Packaging difussers


ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 60 DAYS 1 U.

Corrugated cardboard box of 400 units (20 packs of 20 units)
Box size: 0,32 x 0,24 x 0, 22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight: 1,5 kg.

envase de 20 unidades

Pack of 20 units.

Caja con 400 unidades

Box of 400 units.
(20 packs x 20 units each)

ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 60 DAYS 10 U.

Corrugated cardboard box of 2.000 units (20 packs of 100 units)
Box size: 0,32 x 0,24 x 0,22 m (length x width x height).
Box weight:: 2,3 kg.

envase de 100 unidades

Pack of 20 units.
(10 packs x 10 units each)

Caja con 2000 unidades

Box of 2000 units.
(20 packs x 100 units each)


Packaging traps


ECONEX WHITE TRIANGULAR without sheets

Corrugated cardboard box of 120 units
Box size: 0.60 x 0.40 x 0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 11.10 kg.
Number of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 1.95 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 232 kg

Box of 120 units

Box of 120 units.


ECONEX FOLDING WHITE TRIANGULAR WITHOUT SHEETS

Corrugated cardboard box of 150 units
Box size: 0.60 x 0.40 x 0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 10.60 kg.
Number of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 1.95 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 222 kg

Box of 150 units.

Box of 150 units.

ECONEX SHEET FOR TRIANGULAR 1 UNIT PACK

Corrugated cardboard box of 500 units
Box size: 0.42 0.29 x 0.21 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 10.75 kg.
Number of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1.10 x 1.00 x 1.25 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 545 kg

Box of 500 units

Box of 500 units.


ECONEX POLILLERO

Corrugated cardboard box of 35 units
Box size: 0.60 x 0.40 x 0.35 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 9.80 kg.
Number of boxes per pallet: 20
Pallet size: 1.20 x 0.80 x 1.95 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 206 kg

Bof of 35 units

Box of 35 units.


ECONEX DISPOSABLE WHITE TRIANGULAR

Corrugated cardboard box of 250 units
Box size: 0.42 x 0.29 x 0.21 m (length x width x height)
Box weight: 13.10 kg.
Number of boxes per pallet: 50
Pallet size: 1.10 x 1.00 x 1.25 m (length x width x height)
Pallet weight: 665 kg

Box of 250 units

Box of 250 units.


Recommended information:


ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 60 DAYS LEAFLET

Leaflet in PDF format that can be downloaded by clicking on the image.

ECONEX PRAYS CITRI 2 MG 60 DAYS LEAFLET


ECONEX WEB RESOURCES

Section of the ECONEX corporate website that allows you access to online information about ECONEX solutions for the biocontrol of other relevant agricultural and forest pests.

To access ECONEX WEB RESOURCES click on the image.

ECONEX web resources